1. Generalopen

The Company is a public limited company incorporated in Hong Kong and its shares are listed on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (the “Stock Exchange”). The address of the registered office and principal place of business of the Company is 24/F., CDW Building, 388 Castle Peak Road, Tsuen Wan, N.T., Hong Kong.

The principal activities of the Group are the manufacturing and trading of electrical and electronic products.

The functional currency of the Company is United States dollars. The presentation currency has been changed from Hong Kong Dollars to United States Dollars in 2011 so as to be consistent with the functional currency of the Company. In prior years, the Group’s consolidated statement of financial position, the consolidated statement of comprehensive income and the consolidated statement of cash flows were presented in Hong Kong Dollars and in United States Dollars. The change in the Group’s presentation currency in 2011 has had no impact on the amounts on the Group’s financial performance and position for the prior periods and hence, no additional consolidated statement of financial position as at January 1, 2010 has been presented in the Group’s consolidated financial statements.

2. Application of New and Revised Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (“HKFRSs”)open

In the current year, the Group and the Company have applied the following new and revised HKFRSs issued by the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (“HKICPA”):

Amendments to HKFRSs Improvements to HKFRSs issued in 2010
HKAS 24 (as revised in 2009) Related Party Disclosures
Amendments to HKAS 32 Classification of Rights Issues
Amendments to HK (IFRIC) – Int 14 Prepayments of a Minimum Funding Requirement
HK (IFRIC) – Int 19 Extinguishing Financial Liabilities with Equity Instruments

The application of the new and revised HKFRSs in the current year has had no material impact on the Group’s and the Company’s financial performance and positions for the current and prior years and/or on the disclosures set out in these consolidated financial statements.

New and revised HKFRSs issued but not yet effectiveThe Group and the Company have not early applied the following new and revised HKFRSs that have been issued but are not yet effective as at January 1, 2011:

Amendments to HKFRS 1 Severe Hyperinflation and Removal of Fixed Dates for First-time Adopters1
Amendments to HKFRS 7 Disclosures – Transfers of Financial Assets1
Disclosures – Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities2
Mandatory Effective Date of HKFRS 9 and Transition Disclosures3
HKFRS 9 Financial Instruments3
HKFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements2
HKFRS 11 Joint Arrangements2
HKFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities2
HKFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement2
Amendments to HKAS 1 Presentation of Items of Other Comprehensive Income5
Amendments to HKAS 12 Deferred Tax – Recovery of Underlying Assets4
HKAS 19 (as revised in 2011) Employee Benefits2
HKAS 27 (as revised in 2011) Separate Financial Statements2
HKAS 28 (as revised in 2011) Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures2
Amendments to HKAS 32 Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities6
HK (IFRIC) – Int 20 Stripping Costs in Production Phase of a Surface Mine2
1 Effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2011
2 Effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013
3 Effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2015
4 Effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2012
5 Effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2012
6 Effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014

Amendments to HKFRS 7 Disclosures – Transfers of Financial AssetsThe amendments to HKFRS 7 increase the disclosure requirements for transactions involving transfers of financial assets. These amendments are intended to provide greater transparency around risk exposures when a financial asset is transferred but the transferor retains some level of continuing exposure in the asset. The amendments also require disclosures where transfers of financial assets are not evenly distributed throughout the period.

The directors of the Company anticipate that the application of the amendments to HKFRS 7 will affect the Group’s disclosure regarding transfer of financial assets in the future.

HKFRS 9 Financial InstrumentsHKFRS 9 issued in 2009 introduces new requirements for the classification and measurement of financial assets. HKFRS 9 amended in 2010 includes the requirements for the classification and measurement of financial liabilities and for derecognition.

Key requirements of HKFRS 9 are described as follows:

  • With regards to financial assets, HKFRS 9 requires all recognised financial assets that are within the scope of HKAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement to be subsequently measured at amortised cost or fair value. Specifically, debt investments that are held within a business model whose objective is to collect the contractual cash flows, and that have contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding, are generally measured at amortised cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. All other debt investments and equity investments are measured at their fair values at the end of subsequent reporting periods. In addition, under HKFRS 9, entities may make an irrevocable election to present subsequent changes in the fair value of an equity investment (that is not held for trading) in other comprehensive income, with only dividend income generally recognised in profit or loss. The adoption of HKFRS 9 will require the Group’s and the Company’s available-for-sale investments that are currently measured at cost less impairment to be measured at fair value instead of being measured at cost.

The directors anticipate that the adoption of HKFRS 9 in the future may have an impact on amounts reported in respect of the Group’s financial assets. However, it is not practicable to provide a reasonable estimate of that effect until a detailed review has been completed.

New and revised Standards on consolidation, joint arrangements, associates and disclosuresIn June 2011, a package of five standards on consolidation, joint arrangements, associates and disclosures was issued, including HKFRS 10, HKFRS 11, HKFRS 12, HKAS 27 (as revised in 2011) and HKAS 28 (as revised in 2011).

Key requirements of these five standards are described below.

HKFRS 10 replaces the parts of HKAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements that deal with consolidated financial statements and HK (SIC)-Int 12 Consolidation – Special Purpose Entities. HKFRS 10 includes a new definition of control that contains three elements: (a) power over an investee, (b) exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee, and (c) the ability to use its power over the investee to affect the amount of the investor’s returns. Extensive guidance has been added in HKFRS 10 to deal with complex scenarios.

HKFRS 12 is a disclosure standard and is applicable to entities that have interests in subsidiaries, joint arrangements, associates and/or unconsolidated structured entities. In general, the disclosure requirements in HKFRS 12 are more extensive than those in the current standards.

These five standards are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013. Earlier application is permitted provided that all of these five standards are applied early at the same time.

The directors anticipate that these five standards will be adopted in the Group’s consolidated financial statements for the annual period beginning January 1, 2013. The directors have not yet performed a detailed analysis of the impact of the application of these Standards and hence have not yet quantified the extent of the impact.

HKFRS 13 Fair Value MeasurementHKFRS 13 establishes a single source of guidance for fair value measurements and disclosures about fair value measurements. The Standard defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. The scope of HKFRS 13 is broad; it applies to both financial instrument items and non-financial instrument items for which other HKFRSs require or permit fair value measurements and disclosures about fair value measurements, except in specified circumstances. In general, the disclosure requirements in HKFRS 13 are more extensive than those in the current standards. For example, quantitative and qualitative disclosures based on the three-level fair value hierarchy currently required for financial instruments only under HKFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures will be extended by HKFRS 13 to cover all assets and liabilities within its scope.

HKFRS 13 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013, with earlier application permitted.

The directors anticipate that HKFRS 13 will be adopted in the Group’s consolidated financial statements for the annual period beginning January 1, 2013 and that the application of the new Standard may affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and result in more extensive disclosures in the consolidated financial statements.

Amendments to HKAS 1 Presentation of Items of Other Comprehensive IncomeThe amendments to HKAS 1 retain the option to present profit or loss and other comprehensive income in either a single statement or in two separate but consecutive statements. However, the amendments to HKAS 1 require additional disclosures to be made in the other comprehensive income section such that items of other comprehensive income are grouped into two categories: (a) items that will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss; and (b) items that may be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss when specific conditions are met. Income tax on items of other comprehensive income is required to be allocated on the same basis.

The amendments to HKAS 1 are effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2012. The presentation of items of other comprehensive income will be modified accordingly when the amendments are applied in the future accounting periods.

HKAS 19 (as revised in 2011) Employee BenefitsThe amendments to HKAS 19 change the accounting for defined benefit plans and termination benefits. The most significant change relates to the accounting for changes in defined benefit obligations and plan assets. The amendments require the recognition of changes in defined benefit obligations and in the fair value of plan assets when they occur, and hence eliminate the ‘corridor approach’ permitted under the previous version of HKAS 19. The amendments require all actuarial gains and losses to be recognised immediately through other comprehensive income in order for the net pension asset or liability recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position to reflect the full value of the plan deficit or surplus.

The amendments to HKAS 19 are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013 and require retrospective application with certain exceptions. The directors anticipate that the amendments to HKAS 19 will be adopted in the Group’s consolidated financial statements for the annual period beginning January 1, 2013 and that the application of the amendments to HKAS 19 may have an impact on amounts reported in respect of the Groups’ defined benefit plans. However, the Group currently recognises all changes in defined benefit obligations and in the fair value of plan assets in profit or loss when they occur. The directors have not yet performed a detailed analysis of the impact of the application of the amendments and hence have not yet quantified the extent of the impact.

The directors anticipate that the application of the other new and revised HKFRSs will have no material impact on the financial performance and financial position of the Group and the Company.

3. Significant Accounting Policiesopen

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with HKFRSs issued by the HKICPA. In addition, the consolidated financial statements include applicable disclosures required by the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited and by the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance.

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments, which are measured at fair values, as explained in the accounting policies set out below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods.

The principal accounting policies are set out below.

Basis of ConsolidationThe consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the Company and entities (including special purpose entities) controlled by the Company (its subsidiaries). Control is achieved where the Company has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.

The results of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income from the effective date of acquisition and up to the effective date of disposal, as appropriate.

Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting policies into line with those used by other members of the Group.

All intra-group transactions, balances, income and expenses are eliminated on consolidation.

Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries are presented separately from the Group’s equity therein.

Allocation of total comprehensive income to non-controlling interestsTotal comprehensive income and expense of a subsidiary is attributed to the owners of the Company and to the non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance (effective from January 1, 2010 onwards).

Changes in the Group’s ownership interests in existing subsidiariesChanges in the Group’s ownership interests in subsidiaries that do not result in the Group losing control over the subsidiaries are accounted for as equity transactions. The carrying amounts of the Group’s interests and the non-controlling interests are adjusted to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiaries. Any difference between the amount by which the non-controlling interests are adjusted and the fair value of the consideration paid or received is recognised directly in equity and attributed to owners of the Company.

When the Group loses control of a subsidiary, it (i) derecognises the assets (including any goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary at their carrying amounts at the date when control is lost, (ii) derecognises the carrying amount of any non-controlling interests in the former subsidiary at the date when control is lost (including any components of other comprehensive income attributable to them), and (iii) recognises the aggregate of the fair value of the consideration received and the fair value of any retained interest, with any resulting difference being recognised as a gain or loss in profit or loss attributable to the Group. Where certain assets of the subsidiary are carried at revalued amounts or fair values and the related cumulative gain or loss has been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity, the amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets (i.e. reclassified to profit or loss or transferred directly to retained earnings as specified by applicable HKFRSs). The fair value of any investment retained in the former subsidiary at the date when control is lost is regarded as the fair value on initial recognition for subsequent accounting under HKAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement or, when applicable, the cost on initial recognition of an investment in an associate or a jointly controlled entity.

Business CombinationsAcquisitions of businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the Group, liabilities incurred by the Group to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Group in exchange for control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are generally recognised in profit or loss as incurred.

At the acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date, except that:

  • deferred tax assets or liabilities and liabilities or assets related to employee benefit arrangements are recognised and measured in accordance with HKAS 12 Income Taxes and HKAS 19 Employee Benefits respectively;
  • liabilities or equity instruments related to share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree or share based payment arrangements of the Group entered into to replace share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree are measured in accordance with HKFRS 2 Share-based Payment at the acquisition date (see the accounting policy below); and
  • assets (or disposal groups) that are classified as held for sale in accordance with HKFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations are measured in accordance with that standard.

Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree, and the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. If, after re-assessment, the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree and the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held interest in the acquiree (if any), the excess is recognised immediately in profit or loss as a bargain purchase gain.

Non-controlling interests that are present ownership interests and entitle their holders to a proportionate share of the entity’s net assets in the event of liquidation may be initially measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share of the recognised amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. The choice of measurement basis is made on a transaction-by-transaction basis. Other types of non-controlling interests are measured at their fair value or, when applicable, on the basis specified in another standard.

Where the consideration transferred by the Group in a business combination includes assets or liabilities resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement, the contingent consideration is measured at its acquisition-date fair value and considered as part of the consideration transferred in a business combination. Changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration that qualify as measurement period adjustments are adjusted retrospectively, with the corresponding adjustments made against goodwill. Measurement period adjustments are adjustments that arise from additional information obtained during the “measurement period” (which cannot exceed one year from the acquisition date) about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date.

The subsequent accounting for changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration that do not qualify as measurement period adjustments depends on how the contingent consideration is classified. Contingent consideration that is classified as equity is not remeasured at subsequent reporting dates and its subsequent settlement is accounted for within equity. Contingent consideration that is classified as an asset or a liability is remeasured at subsequent reporting dates in accordance with HKAS 39, or HKAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, as appropriate, with the corresponding gain or loss being recognised in profit or loss.

When a business combination is achieved in stages, the Group’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date (i.e. the date when the Group obtains control), and the resulting gain or loss, if any, is recognised in profit or loss. Amounts arising from interests in the acquiree prior to the acquisition date that have previously been recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss where such treatment would be appropriate if that interest were disposed of.

If the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs, the Group reports provisional amounts for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. Those provisional amounts are adjusted during the measurement period (see above), or additional assets or liabilities are recognised, to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the amounts recognised as of that date.

GoodwillGoodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost less any accumulated impairment losses, if any, and is presented separately in the consolidated statement of financial position.

For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the cash-generating units (or groups of cash-generating units) that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently whenever there is indication that the unit may be impaired. For goodwill arising on an acquisition in a reporting period, the cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment before the end of that reporting period.

If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognised directly in profit or loss in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.

On disposal of the relevant cash-generating unit, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the amount of profit or loss on disposal.

Investments in SubsidiariesInvestments in subsidiaries are included in the Company’s statement of financial position at cost less any identified impairment losses. The results of subsidiaries are accounted for by the Company on the basis of dividends received and receivable.

Interests in AssociatesAn associate is an entity over which the investor has significant influence and that is neither a subsidiary nor an interest in a joint venture. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.

The results and assets and liabilities of associates are incorporated in these consolidated financial statements using the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, investments in associates are initially recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position at cost and adjusted thereafter to recognise the Group’s share of profit or loss and other comprehensive income of the associates. When the Group’s share of profit or loss of an associate equals or exceeds its interest in that associate (which includes any long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the Group’s net investment in the associate), the Group discontinues recognising its share of further losses. Additional losses are recognised only to the extent that the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of that associate.

Any excess of the cost of acquisition over the Group’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of an associate recognised at the date of acquisition is recognised as goodwill, which is included within the carrying amount of the investment.

Any excess of the Group’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of acquisition, after reassessment, is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

The requirements of HKAS 39 are applied to determine whether it is necessary to recognise any impairment loss with respect to the Group’s investment in an associate. When necessary, the entire carrying amount of the investment (including goodwill) is tested for impairment in accordance with HKAS 36 Impairment of Assets as a single asset by comparing its recoverable amount (higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell) with its carrying amount. Any impairment loss recognised forms part of the carrying amount of the investment. Any reversal of that impairment loss is recognised in accordance with HKAS 36 to the extent that the recoverable amount of the investment subsequently increases.

Upon disposal of an associate that results in the Group losing significant influence over that associate, any retained investment is measured at fair value at that date and the fair value is regarded as its fair value on initial recognition as a financial asset in accordance with HKAS 39. The difference between the previous carrying amount of the associate attributable to the retained interest and its fair value is included in the determination of the gain or loss on disposal of the associate. In addition, the Group accounts for all amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to that associate on the same basis as would be required if that associate had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. Therefore, if a gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income by that associate would be reclassified to profit or loss on the disposal of the related assets or liabilities, the Group reclassifies the gain or loss from equity to profit or loss (as a reclassification adjustment) when it loses significant influence over that associate.

Where a group entity transacts with an associate of the Group, profits and losses are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the relevant associate.

Investments in associates are included in the Company’s statement of financial position at cost less any identified impairment losses. The results of associates are accounted for by the Company on the basis of dividends received and receivable.

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately

Intangible assets acquired separately and with finite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation of intangible assets with finite useful lives is provided on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effective of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Alternatively, intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less any subsequent accumulated impairment losses (see the accounting policy in respect of impairment losses on tangible and intangible assets below).

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured at the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in profit or loss in the period when the asset is derecognised.

Intangible assets acquired in a business combination

Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are measured at their fair value at the acquisition date. The cost of such intangible assets is their fair value at the acquisition date.

Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets with finite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation of intangible assets with finite useful lives is provided on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

Alternatively, intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are carried at cost less any subsequent accumulated impairment losses (see the accounting policy in respect of impairment losses on tangible and intangible assets below).

Research and Development Expenditure

Expenditure on research activities is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.

An internally-generated intangible asset arising from development (or from the development phase of an internal project) is recognised only if all of the following have been demonstrated:

  • the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale;
  • the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;
  • the ability to use or sell the intangible asset;
  • how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits;
  • the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and
  • the ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

The amount initially recognised for an internally-generated intangible asset is the sum of the expenditure incurred from the date when the intangible asset first meets the recognition criteria. Where no internally generated intangible asset can be recognised, development expenditure is charged to profit or loss in the period in which it is incurred.

Subsequent to initial recognition, an internally-generated intangible asset is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets acquired separately.

LeasingLeases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

The Group and the Company as lesseeAssets held under finance leases are recognised as assets of the Group and the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the consolidation statement of financial position as a finance lease obligation.

Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and a reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are charged directly to profit or loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalised in accordance with the Group’s policy on borrowing costs (see the accounting policy below).

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefit from the leased assets are consumed.

In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognised as a liability. The aggregate benefits of incentives are recognised as a reduction of rental expense over the lease term on a straight-line basis except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefit from the leased assets are consumed.

Leasehold land and buildingWhen a lease includes both land and building elements, the Group and the Company assess the classification of each element as a finance or an operating lease separately based on the assessment as to whether substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of each element have been transferred to the Group or the Company, unless it is clear that both elements are operating leases in which case the entire lease is classified as an operating lease. Specifically, the minimum lease payments (including any lump-sum upfront payments) are allocated between the land and the building elements in proportion to the relative fair values of the leasehold interests in the land element and building element of the lease at the inception of the lease.

To the extent the allocation of the lease payments can be made reliably, interest in leasehold land that is accounted for as an operating lease is presented as “prepaid lease payments” in the consolidated statement of financial position and is amortised over the lease term on a straight-line basis. When the lease payments cannot be allocated reliably between the land and building elements, the entire lease is generally classified as a finance lease and accounted for as property, plant and equipment, unless it is clear that both elements are operating leases, in which case the entire lease is classified as an operating lease.

Property, Plant and EquipmentProperty, plant and equipment including buildings held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, other than construction in progress on tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill, are stated in the statement of financial position at cost less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Depreciation is provided to write off the cost of items of property, plant and equipment, other than construction in progress, over their estimated useful lives and after taking into account of their estimated residual value, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and defined depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.

Construction in progress includes property, plant and equipment in the course of construction for production or for its own use purposes. Construction in progress is carried at cost, less any recognised impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees capitalised in accordance with the Group’s accounting policy. Construction in progress is classified to the appropriate category of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for its intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property, plant and equipment, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets or, where shorter, the term of the relevant lease. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the item) is included in profit or loss in the period in which the item is derecognised.

Impairment Losses on tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill (see the accounting policy in respect of goodwill above)At the end of the reporting period, the Group and the Company review the carrying amounts of its assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss, if any. When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. Where a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that they may be impaired.

The recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or a cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised as income immediately.

Financial InstrumentsFinancial assets and financial liabilities are recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position when a group entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss.

Financial Assets

The Group’s and the Company’s financial assets are classified into one of the three categories, including financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (“FVTPL”), loans and receivables and available-for-sale financial assets. The classification depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition. All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

Effective interest methodThe effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial asset, or, where appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Interest income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL, of which interest income is included in net gains or losses.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or lossFinancial assets at FVTPL include financial assets held for trading.

A financial asset is classified as held for trading if:

  • it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the near future; or
  • it is a part of an identified portfolio of financial instruments that the Group manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or
  • it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument.

Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value, with changes in fair value arising from remeasurement recognised directly in profit or loss in the period in which they arise. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss includes any dividend or interest earned on the financial assets.

Loans and receivablesLoans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. Subsequent to initial recognition, loans and receivables (including trade and other receivables, amounts due from associates, bills receivable, trade receivables from associates, loans to subsidiaries, amounts due from subsidiaries and bank balances, deposits and cash) are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any identified impairment losses (see accounting policy in respect of impairment of financial assets below).

Available-for-sale financial assetsAvailable-for-sale financial assets are non-derivatives that are either designated or not classified as financial assets at FVTPL, loans and receivables or held-to-maturity investments.

For available-for-sale equity investments that do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value cannot be reliably measured, they are measured at cost less any identified impairment losses at the end of each reporting period (see accounting policy in respect of impairment of financial assets below).

Impairment of financial assetsFinancial assets, other than those at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. Financial assets are impaired where there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the financial asset, the estimated future cash flows of the financial assets have been affected.

For an available-for-sale equity investment, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of that investment below its cost is considered to be objective evidence of impairment.

For all other financial assets, objective evidence of impairment could include:

  • significant financial difficulty of the issuer or counterparty; or
  • default or delinquency in interest or principal payments; or
  • it becoming probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or financial re-organisation.

For certain categories of financial asset, such as trade receivables and trade receivables from associates, assets that are assessed not to be impaired individually are, in addition, subsequently assessed for impairment on a collective basis. Objective evidence of impairment for a portfolio of receivables could include the Group’s and the Company’s past experience of collecting payments, an increase in the number of delayed payments in the portfolio past the average credit period of 60 to 120 days, or observable changes in national or local economic conditions that correlate with default on receivables.

For financial assets carried at amortised cost, the amount of the impairment loss recognised is the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate.

For financial assets carried at cost, the amount of the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate of return for a similar financial asset. Such impairment loss will not be reversed in subsequent periods.

The carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced by the impairment loss directly for all financial assets with the exception of trade receivables and trade receivables from associates, where the carrying amount is reduced through the use of an allowance account. Changes in the carrying amount of the allowance account are recognised in profit or loss. When a trade receivable is considered uncollectible, it is written off against the allowance account. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited to profit or loss.

When an available-for-sale financial asset is considered to be impaired, cumulative gains or losses previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss in the period in which the impairment takes place.

For financial assets measured at amortised cost, if, in a subsequent period, the amount of an impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised, the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss to the extent that the carrying amount of the asset at the date the impairment is reversed does not exceed what the amortised cost would have been had the impairment not been recognised.

Impairment losses on available-for-sale equity investments will not be reversed through profit or loss in subsequent periods. Any increase in fair value subsequent to impairment loss is recognised directly in other comprehensive income.

Financial liabilities and equity

Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued by a group entity are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Equity instrumentAn equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Group and the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Group and the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Repurchase of the Company’s own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments.

Effective interest methodThe effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Interest expense is recognised on an effective interest basis.

Convertible bondsConvertible bonds issued by the Group and the Company that contain both liability and conversion option components are classified separately into their respective items on initial recognition. Conversion options that will be settled by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the Company’s own equity instruments are classified as an equity instrument. Embedded derivatives, including early redemption options, which are closely related to the liability components are not separately accounted for.

On initial recognition, the fair value of the liability component is determined using the prevailing market interest of similar non-convertible debts. The difference between the gross proceeds of the issue of the convertible bonds and the fair value assigned to the liability component, representing the conversion option for the holder to convert the bonds into equity, is included in equity (convertible bonds equity reserve).

In subsequent periods, the liability component of the convertible bonds is carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The equity component, representing the option to convert the liability component into ordinary shares of the Company, will remain in the convertible bonds equity reserve until the embedded option is exercised (in which case the balance stated in the convertible bonds equity reserve will be transferred to share premium). Where the option remains unexercised at the expiry date, the balance stated in the convertible bonds equity reserve will be released to retained profits. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss upon conversion or expiration of the option.

Transaction costs that relate to the issue of the convertible bonds are allocated to the liability and equity components in proportion to the allocation of the gross proceeds. Transaction costs relating to the equity component are charged directly to equity. Transaction costs relating to the liability component are included in the carrying amount of the liability portion and amortised over the period of the convertible bonds using the effective interest method.

Upon early redemption of the convertible bonds, the early redemption consideration will be allocated to the liability component and equity component using the same allocation basis as when the convertible bonds were originally issued. Differences between the fair value and the carrying amount of the liability component will be recognised in profit or loss. The difference between the early redemption consideration and the fair value of the liability component will be included in equity (convertible bonds equity reserve) and released to retained profits.

Other financial liabilitiesOther financial liabilities (including unsecured borrowings, trade and other payables, bills payable, trade payable to an associate, discounted bills with recourse, bank overdrafts and amounts due to subsidiaries) are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest method.

Derivative financial instruments

Derivatives that are not accounted for as eligible hedging instruments are initially recognised at fair value at the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss immediately.

Financial guarantee contracts

A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due in accordance with the original or modified terms of a debt instrument. A financial guarantee contract issued by the Group and the Company and not designated as at fair value through profit or loss is recognised initially at its fair value less transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issue of the financial guarantee contract. Subsequent to initial recognition, the Group measures the financial guarantee contract at the higher of: (i) the amount of obligation under the contract, as determined in accordance with HKAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets; and (ii) the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with the revenue recognition policy.

Derecognition

The Group and the Company derecognise a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another entity. If the Group and the Company neither transfer nor retain substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Group and the Company continue to recognise the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement and recognises an associated liability. If the Group and the Company retain substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Group and the Company continue to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

Financial liabilities are derecognised when the obligation specified in the relevant contract is discharged, cancelled or expires. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid is recognised in profit or loss.

ProvisionsProvisions are recognised when the Group and the Company have a present obligation as a result of a past event and it is probable that the Group and the Company will be required to settle that obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are measured at the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. Where a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (where the effect of the time value of money is material).

A provision for warranties is recognised at the time the products are sold based on the estimated cost using historical data for the level of repairs and replacements.

A provision for restructuring is recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position on condition that the Group has a detailed formal plan and has raised a valid expectation to those affected that the plan will be carried out, either by starting to implement that plan or by announcing its main features to those affected.

For a provision in relation to employee termination benefits, the liability and expenses are recognised when the Group committed to terminate the employment of an employee or group of employees before their normal retirement date or provide termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy.

InventoriesInventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is calculated using the first-in, first-out method.

Revenue RecognitionTurnover is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents amounts receivable for goods sold by the Group and the Company to outside customers in the normal course of business, less returns and allowances, and commission income and royalty income received.

Turnover from sales of goods is recognised when goods are delivered and title has passed.

Commission income is recognised when services are provided.

Royalty income is recognised on a time proportion basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreements.

Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that discounts the estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholders’ right to receive payment have been established.

TaxationIncome tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from profit as reported in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group’s and the Company’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from initial recognition of goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments and interests are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilise the benefits of the temporary differences and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of the reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset is realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Group and the Company expect, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities. Deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, except when it relates to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the deferred tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.

Current and deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, except when it relates to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

Foreign CurrenciesIn preparing the financial statements of each individual group entity, transactions in currencies other than the functional currency of that entity (foreign currencies) are recorded in its respective functional currency (i.e. the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates) at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the exchange rates at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, and on the retranslation of monetary items, are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise, except for exchange differences arising on a monetary item that form part of the Company’s net investment in a foreign operation, in which case, such exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity and will be reclassified from equity to profit or loss on disposal of the foreign operation.

For the purposes of presenting the consolidated financial statements, the assets and liabilities of the Group’s foreign operations are translated into the presentation currency of the Group (i.e. United States dollars) at the rate of exchange prevailing at the end of each reporting period, and their income and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates for the year. Exchange differences arising, if any, are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity under the heading of translation reserve (attributed to non-controlling interests as appropriate).

On the disposal of a foreign operation (i.e. a disposal of the Group’s entire interest in a foreign operation, or a disposal involving loss of control over a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation, a disposal involving loss of joint control over a jointly controlled entity that includes a foreign operation, or a disposal involving loss of significant influence over an associate that includes a foreign operation), all of the exchange differences accumulated in equity in respect of that operation attributable to the owners of the Company are reclassified to profit or loss. In addition, in relation to a partial disposal of a subsidiary that does not result in the Group losing control over the subsidiary, the proportionate share of accumulated exchange differences are reattributed to non-controlling interests and are not recognised in profit or loss. For all other partial disposals (i.e. partial disposals of associates or jointly controlled entities that do not result in the Group losing significant influence or joint control), the proportionate share of the accumulated exchange differences is reclassified to profit or loss.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments on identifiable assets acquired arising on an acquisition of a foreign operation on or after January 1, 2005 are treated as assets and liabilities of that foreign operation and retranslated at the rate of exchange prevailing at the end of the reporting date. Exchange differences arising are recognised in the translation reserve.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments on identifiable assets acquired arising on acquisitions of foreign operations before January 1, 2005 are treated as non-monetary foreign currency items of the acquirer and reported using the historical exchange rate prevailing at the date of the acquisition.

Borrowing CostsBorrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

Equity-Settled Share-Based Payment TransactionsThe fair value of services received determined by reference to the fair value of share options granted at the grant date is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, with a corresponding increase in equity (employee share-based compensation reserve).

At the end of each reporting period, the Group and the Company revise its estimates of the number of options that are expected to ultimately vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates during the vesting period, such that the cumulative expenses reflecting the revised estimate, is recognised in profit or loss, with a corresponding adjustment to employee share-based compensation reserve.

At the time when the share options are exercised, the amount previously recognised in employee share-based compensation reserve will be transferred to share premium. When the share options are forfeited or are still not exercised at the expiry date, the amount previously recognised in the employee share-based compensation reserve will be transferred to retained profits.

Retirement Benefit SchemesPayments to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes and the Mandatory Provident Fund Scheme are charged as expenses when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.

For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each reporting period. All actuarial gains and losses of defined benefit plans are recognised immediately in profit or loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the amended benefits become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

A gain or loss arising on curtailment or settlement of a defined benefit scheme is recognised immediately when the curtailment or settlement occurs.

Government grantsGovernment grants are not recognised until there is reasonable assurance that the Group will comply with the conditions attaching to them and that the grants will be received. Government grants are recognised in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Group recognised as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.

4. Key Sources of Accounting Estimatesopen

In the application of the Group’s and the Company’s accounting policies, which are described in Note 3, the directors of the Company are required to make judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Key Sources of Estimation UncertaintyThe following are key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.

Estimated Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets with Indefinite Useful LivesDetermining whether goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are impaired requires an estimation of the value in use of the cash generating units to which goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives have been allocated. The value in use calculation requires the Group to estimate the future cash flows expected to arise from the cash generating unit and a suitable discount rate in order to calculate the present value. As at December 31, 2011, the carrying amount of goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are approximately US$530,856,000 (2010: US$529,884,000) and approximately US$177,555,000 (2010: US$177,197,000) respectively. Details of the recoverable amount calculation are disclosed in Note 21.

Useful Lives and Estimated Impairment of Deferred Development CostsAs at December 31, 2011, the carrying amount of deferred development costs of the Group and the Company is US$162,332,000 (2010: US$143,877,000) and US$14,708,000 (2010: US$26,184,000) respectively. The estimation of their useful lives impacts the level of annual amortisation recorded. The estimation of their useful lives reflects the directors’ best estimate of the periods that future economic benefits will be received through the use of the assets. In determining whether the deferred development costs are impaired, the management takes into consideration the anticipated revenues and estimated future cash flows from the underlying projects, and the progress of these projects. When the actual revenues and future cash flows are less than expected, a material loss may arise. Management is confident that the carrying amount of the assets will be recovered in full. This situation will be closely monitored, and adjustments will be made in future periods, if future market activity indicates that such adjustments are appropriate.

Useful Lives and Impairment Assessment of Property, Plant and EquipmentProperty, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and identified impairment losses. As at December 31, 2011, the Group’s and the Company’s carrying amount of property, plant and equipment are US$360,082,000 (2010: US$339,437,000) and US$3,774,000 (2010: US$7,402,000) respectively. The estimation of their useful lives impacts the level of annual depreciation expense recorded. The estimated useful life that the Group and the Company place the equipment into production reflects the directors’ estimate of the periods that the Group and the Company intend to derive future economic benefits from the use of the Group’s and the Company’s property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are evaluated for possible impairment on a specific asset basis or in groups of similar assets, as applicable. This process requires management’s estimate of future cash flows generated by each asset or group of assets. For any instance where this evaluation process indicates impairment, the appropriate assets’ carrying values are written down to the recoverable amount and the amount of the write-down is charged against the results of operations.

Income Taxes

As at December 31, 2011, a deferred tax asset of US$57,095,000 (2010: US$64,012,000) in relation to unused tax losses and US$11,257,000 (2010: US$12,733,000) in relation to employee related provisions has been recognised in the Group’s consolidated statement of financial position. The realisability of the deferred tax asset mainly depends on whether sufficient taxable profits, or taxable temporary differences, will be available in the future. In cases where the actual future taxable profits generated are less than expected, a material reversal of the deferred tax assets may arise, which would be recognised in profit or loss for the period in which such a reversal takes place. During the year, deferred tax assets of approximately US$15,850,000 (2010: US$1,860,000) in relation to unused tax losses were utilised.

Estimated Impairment of Trade and Other Receivables, Bills Receivables and Trade Receivables from Associates When there is objective evidence of an impairment loss, the Group and the Company takes into consideration the estimation of future cash flows. The amount of the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (i.e. the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition). When the actual future cash flows are less than expected, a material impairment loss may arise. As at December 31, 2011, the Group’s and the Company’s carrying amount of trade and other receivables, bills receivable and trade receivables/amounts due from associates is US$728,781,000 (net of allowance for doubtful debts of US$14,680,000) (2010: US$679,815,000 net of allowance for doubtful debts of US$15,528,000) and US$18,264,000 (net of allowance for doubtful debts of nil) (2010: US$41,237,000 net of allowance for doubtful debts of nil).

5. Segment Informationopen

Information reported to the executive directors of the Company, being the Chief operating decision maker, for the purposes of resources allocation and assessment of segment performance focuses on the types of goods sold.

The principal categories of goods supplied are “Power Equipment” and “Floor Care and Appliances”. The Group’s operating segment under HKFRS 8 are as follows:

  1. Power Equipment – sales of power tools, power tool accessories, outdoor products, and outdoor product accessories for consumer, trade, professional and industrial users. The products are available under the MILWAUKEE®, AEG®, RYOBI® and HOMELITE® brand, plus original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) customers.
  2. Floor Care and Appliances – sales of floor care products and floor care accessories under the HOOVER®, DIRT DEVIL® and VAX® brand, plus OEM customers.

Information regarding the above segments is reported below.

Segment turnover and resultsThe following is an analysis of the Group’s turnover and results by reportable and operating segment for the year under review:

For the year ended December 31, 2011

Power Equipment Floor Care and Appliances Eliminations Consolidated
US$’000 US$’000 US$’000 US$’000
Segment turnover
External sales
2,662,739 1,004,319 3,667,058
Inter-segment sales
18,314 4,389 (22,703)
Total segment turnover 2,681,053 1,008,708 (22,703) 3,667,058
Inter-segment sales are charged at prevailing market rates.
Result
Segment results before restructuring costs
188,780 34,834 223,614
Restructuring costs
Segment results
188,780 34,834 223,614
Finance costs
(63,093)
Share of results of associates
(347)
Profit before taxation
160,174
Taxation charge
(9,242)
Profit for the year
150,932

The accounting policies of the operating segments are the same as the Group’s accounting policies described in Note 3. Segment profit represents the profit earned by each segment without allocation of the share of results of associates and finance costs. This is the measure reported to the Group’s Chief Executive Officer, for the purposes of resource allocation and performance assessment.

The Group allocates fair value changes in warrants, interest rate swaps and foreign currency forward contracts and interest earned on bank deposits to segment results, whereas the related warrants, interest rate swaps, foreign currency forward contracts and bank balances, deposits and cash are not allocated to the segment assets.

Segment assets and liabilitiesAs at December 31, 2011

Power
Equipment
Floor Care and Appliances
Consolidated
US$’000
US$’000
US$’000
Assets
Segment assets
2,175,535
619,405
2,794,940
Unallocated assets
Interests in associates
20,165
Deferred tax assets
73,633
Foreign currency forward contracts
8,645
Warrants
222
Tax recoverable
12,361
Bank balances, deposits and cash
459,650
Consolidated total assets
3,369,616
Liabilities
Segment liabilities
(995,537)
(324,557)
(1,320,094)
Unallocated liabilities
Tax payable
(10,937)
Bank overdrafts
(19,972)
Obligations under finance leases
(6,485)
Interest rate swap
(4,768)
Foreign currency forward contracts
(4,234)
Unsecured borrowings
(587,024)
Deferred tax liabilities
(27,973)
Convertible bonds
(134,001)
Consolidated total liabilities
(2,115,488)

For the purposes of monitoring segment performance and allocating resources between segments:

  • all assets are allocated to operating segments other than interests in associates, deferred tax assets, foreign currency forward contracts, warrants, tax recoverable and bank balances, deposits and cash; and
  • all liabilities are allocated to operating segments other than tax payable, bank overdrafts, obligations under finance leases, interest rate swap, foreign currency forward contracts, unsecured borrowings (other than trust receipt loans), deferred tax liabilities and convertible bonds.

Other segment informationFor the year ended December 31, 2011

Amounts included in the measure of segment profit or loss or segment assets:

Power
Equipment
Floor Care and Appliances
Consolidated
US$’000
US$’000
US$’000
Additions to non-current assets (Note)
115,532
46,037
161,569
Gain (loss) on disposal of property, plant and equipment
4,991
(1)
4,990
Write-down of inventories
4,346
3,913
8,259
Impairment loss on trade receivables
1,776
1,216
2,992
Depreciation and amortisation
79,694
40,052
119,746

Note: Non-current assets exclude financial instruments and deferred tax assets.

Segment turnover and resultsFor the year ended December 31, 2010

Power Equipment Floor Care and Appliances Eliminations Consolidated
US$’000 US$’000 US$’000 US$’000
Segment turnover
External sales
2,385,590 997,248 3,382,838
Inter-segment sales
15,382 3,593 (18,975)
Total segment turnover 2,400,972 1,000,841 (18,975) 3,382,838
Inter-segment sales are charged at prevailing market rates.
Result
Segment results before restructuring costs
146,797 50,003 196,800
Restructuring costs
(26,653) (26,653)
Segment costs
120,144 50,003 170,147
Finance costs
(74,301)
Share of results of associates
(155)
Profit before taxation
95,691
Taxation credit
70
Profit for the year
95,761

Segment assets and liabilitiesAs at December 31, 2010

Power
Equipment
Floor Care and
Appliances
Consolidated
US$’000
US$’000
US$’000
Assets
Segment assets
2,064,615
573,937
2,638,552
Unallocated assets
Interests in associates
24,062
Deferred tax assets
68,527
Foreign currency forward contracts
10,331
Warrants
552
Tax recoverable
10,995
Bank balances, deposits and cash
512,893
Consolidated total assets
3,265,912
Liabilities
Segment liabilities
(859,472)
(279,985)
(1,139,457)
Unallocated liabilities
Tax payable
(7,578)
Bank overdrafts
(22,350)
Obligations under finance leases
(8,677)
Interest rate swap
(2,343)
Foreign currency forward contracts
(2,606)
Unsecured borrowings
(803,027)
Deferred tax liabilities
(22,942)
Convertible bonds
(127,225)
Consolidated total liabilities
(2,136,205)

Other segment informationFor the year ended December 31, 2010

Amounts included in the measure of segment profit or loss or segment assets:

Power
Equipment
Floor Care and
Appliances
Consolidated
US$’000
US$’000
US$’000
Additions to non-current assets (Note)
110,666
35,568
146,234
Gain (loss) on disposal of property, plant and equipment
651
(1,329)
(678)
Write-down of inventories
8,340
2,732
11,072
Impairment loss on trade receivables
5,322
402
5,724
Depreciation and amortisation
78,250
35,244
113,494

Note: Non-current assets exclude financial instruments and deferred tax assets.

Turnover from major productsThe following is an analysis of the Group’s turnover from its major products:

2011
2010
US$’000
US$’000
Power Equipment
2,662,739
2,385,590
Floor Care and Appliances
1,004,319
997,248
Total
3,667,058
3,382,838

Geographical informationThe Group’s turnover from external customers by geographical location, determined based on the location of the customer and information about its non-current assets by geographical location, determined based on the location of the group entity owning the assets are detailed below:

Turnover from external customers
Non-Current Assets*
2011
2010
2011
2010
US$’000
US$’000
US$’000
US$’000
North America
2,648,233
2,461,122
756,744
768,707
Europe
763,501
712,998
88,267
86,564
Other countries
255,324
208,718
453,634
402,956
Total
3,667,058
3,382,838
1,298,645
1,258,227

* Non-current assets exclude financial instruments, deferred tax assets and interests in associates.

Information about major customerDuring the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, the Group’s largest customer contributed total turnover of US$1,384,093,000 (2010: US$1,232,974,000), of which US$1,345,788,000 (2010: US$1,196,367,000) was under the Power Equipment segment and US$38,305,000 (2010: US$36,607,000) was under the Floor Care and Appliances segment. There is no other customer contributing more than 5% of total turnover.

6. Turnoveropen

Turnover represents the fair value of the net amounts received and receivable for goods sold by the Group to outside customers, less returns and allowances, and commission and royalty income received during the year and is analysed as follows:

2011
2010
US$’000
US$’000
Sale of goods
3,648,244
3,374,167
Commission and royalty income
18,814
8,671
3,667,058
3,382,838
7. Other Incomeopen

Other income in 2011 mainly comprises of the gain on disposal of property, plant and equipment, sales of scrap materials and claims and reimbursements from customers and vendors.

Other income in 2010 mainly comprises of the fair value gain on foreign currency forward contracts, sales of scrap materials, claims and reimbursements from customers and vendors, discount on acquisition taken to income, fair value gain on warrants and the fair value gain on held-for-trading investments.

8. Interest Incomeopen

Interest income represents interest earned on bank deposits.

9. Finance Costsopen
2011 2010
US$’000 US$’000
Interest on:
Bank borrowings and overdrafts wholly repayable within five years
27,535 33,588
Obligations under finance leases
585 444
Fixed interest rate notes
16,257 22,242
Effective interest expense on convertible bonds
19,059 18,155
Total borrowing costs 63,436 74,429
Less: amounts capitalised (343) (128)
63,093 74,301
10. Restructuring Costsopen

Restructuring costs in 2010 mainly represent the Group’s labor and staff cost provisions related to the relocation of production from Germany to lower cost locations.